The British Civil War & Glorious Revolution

Here's what my note summary says:So to prepare for my test on 'The Revolutionnary Ara' (En & US) I chose to divide my revisions in two:- the british rev. - the american rev.In this post, you'll get to know a little somethin' somethin' about the British revolution.For me, the best way to memorize what had happened is to list (in a chronological order) the names and doings of the different Kings and Queens that Britain had before, during and after the event.

*Leading to the Revolution

John 1st
- Ere of Henry II (who died partially of sorrow over being betrayed by his youngest son, John) almost right after his older brother Richard "Lionheart"
-Became king in 1199 after Richard's death in battle
- Married Isabella Gloucester in 1189 and ended it in 1199 (but kept her nearly captured for about ten years because he didn't want her, but her land)- the year he became king- because "she couldn't give him" an era, then married french Isabella Angoulême in 1200 (2 Isabella's.. yikes!)
- In France, a baron objected to his second marriage because of the girl's young age (estimated to have been around 12 y.o.). John ignored the objection, proceeded to marrying her, and cerrurated the baron. This started a rebellion.
- had a bad reputation: womanizer with political consequences, greed, treason, lust.
- First king to have committed murder with his own hands:
Arthur of Brittany, his younger nephew, after he had challenged the legitimacy of his succession to the throne. Was killed in 1202.
--All these events stomped the idea of Bad King John in people's minds which led to rebellions.
- The Counsil of the Realm asked him to sign the Magna Carta- so he did. He had plans of destroying it later but never lived to do so. Therefor, the document was still official when he died.
- His actions and character were some of the long term causes of the revolution

Edward 1st
- Himself and his successors thought that barons had gotten too powerful.
To make them less relevant,  he created a second part in the C.R. (Counsil of the Realm- which was one of the conditions of the Magna Carta= dividing the king's power) asking King's knights from all over the country to send representatives to London and representatives of wealthy bourgeois (reps of cities/ towns). -->  people felt honored and thrilled to join and and always took sides with the king. From thereon, Parliament was divided in 2 chambers: The House of Lords (knights and barons) & The House of Commons (representatives)

- Got three children: a son that didn't live long enough to rule, and two daughters Mary and Elizabeth.

Mary 1st
- Felt it was her religious duty to bring Catholicism back to England.
- Was in power for about 5 years in which she killed around 200 protestants. --> nickname "Bloody Mary".
- Died at the age of 58 y.o.

Elizabeth 1st
- When her step sister Mary died, she turned her country protestant again.
- (unlike her brother and sister) was queen for  over 40 years.
- Only "bump in the road": rebellion in the North (opposed her religiously and politically) by her only actual rival (related to royal family): political candidate Mary Stuart Queen of Scotts. As she was a living threat, Elizabeth had been advised to eliminate her- so she did. Mary was put on trial, proven guilty and was beheaded as a political opponent.
- In the process of killing mary, 800 people were executed.
- Liked by a majority of the people and by parliament with which she had collaborated well.
- Died without an ere --> caused the civil war
- Succeeded by her cousin's son (King of Scotts).

James 1st
- Not used to and therefor not comfortable with Parliament. Didn't think a monarchy could function that way, wanted absolutism. In his opinion: the King was a rep. of God on earth, God had absolute power, and therefor so should the King. (Enjoyed the French monarchy)

Charles 1st
- Although simpler than John's, had religious and financial problems: accused of being a "closet catholic", had to prepare for war against the Scotts.--> Parliament used his "need" for taxes to make him agree to their demands.--> he ordered wealthy people to lend him large sums of money, if they refused, they were put into prison until they obeyed.

* The Civil War

- In 1628 war broke out

  • forced to call another Parliament
  • before giving him money, made him sign the Petition of Rights (said he could not collect taxes without Parliament's permission + forbade the King of putting anyone in prison without good reasons)
  • Charles signed but ignored the document: Parliament(P.) objected and was dismissed (1629)--> angered MPs. After P. was dismissed he ordered the collection of customs duties (which were supposed to be illegal).
  • Some MPs were arrested and thrown into prison. 
  • End of 1630's, seemed to have enough money to rule without ever calling P. But it was enough to govern, not to fight a war.   
  • 1638 Archbishop Laud tried to force the Scots to use the English Prayer Book. Scotts- nearly all being Puritans- were furious.--> The National Covenant was drawn up, thousands signed it (some even doing so in their own blood).
  • Charle's trusty and effective advisor the Earl of Stafford had been sent to Scotland. When he came back, advised the King to crush the rebellion by force. This (raising an army) would cost almost 1,000,000 pounds (aka money that he didn't have). Charles ultimatum was to call Parliament
  • 1640: Parliament met in the spring. By that time he had already used his money to raise (a small) army. When they met, there was an atmosphere of crisis. The king wanted The House of Commons to raise money immediately. MPs insisted that he had to promise to change his method of government before helping him with anything.
  • One month later: Charles angrily dissolved Parliament again.
  • August 1640 as the Scots had moved into England, he was forced to sign a humiliating treaty with them
  • November: Charles called a new Parliament. One of their first acts: demand arrest of Archbishop Laud and the Earl of Strafford. The king did not dare to stop any of the arrests. Parliament illegally had Strafford executed (with the advice of Pym). Laud: prisoner in the tower of London---> Charles was without his two closest advisors. 
  • Parliament passed laws which gave it more or less power. Eg: the King could no longer choose his own advisors, they were again in control of taxation, Ship money, customs duties and forced loans were abolished. Even the education of the king's children was to be taken care of by Parliament.
  • January 1642: Charles arrived in the House of Commons with a squad of soldiers( determined to arrest his five leading opponents). This was a major error by Charles. The five members had heard what was going to happen, escaped down the river into the City of London. If he had succeeded, he might been able to regain power. 
  • August 1642: thinking he might find more supporters further away from the capital. Charles raised his standard at Nottingham and appealed to all loyal subjects of military age to join him. From London, Parliament began to raise an army. THE CIVIL WAR HAD BEGUN.
  • In the end, the king lost. (mostly thanks to Oliver Crowell who organized Parliament's army). 
- Was arrested, trialled for treason by Parliament- that acted as tribunal. Charles never recognized the authority of P to trial him so didn't defend himself. He was found guilty and sentenced to death by execution.

Post War
-  Parliament tried to rule without a king for years which resulted to major chaos and anarchy. Their solution: go to the man that had saved them= Oliver Crowell (OC). Although he was frustrated, he accepted to rule, but not as king but as Lord Protector of the Commonwealth. His intentions weren't to stay LPC for long, but he was until his death came. 
- When he died, England became a Republic.
- Not being ready for self-government, England asked O.C's son to be new LPC but he was not competent (charisma, prestige.etc...) so things quickly deteriorated back into chaos and anarchy.

- Charles I's son was then asked to be the new king. Charles II promised not to repeat his father's mistakes. The country remained relatively calm, but there were suspicions of him being a "closet catholic"  because he was brought up by a French (and therefor Catholic) mother. Although he never publicly admitted to being so, he asked to be buried as a catholic. He was a well-behaving king and unfortunately died without an are, and therefor succeeded by his brother James II

* The Glorious Revolution

James II
- From 1688
- things started to go bad again
- Was publicly Catholic which made Parliament uncomfortable. Unlike his Catholic ancestors (eg: Charles II) didn't hide his religion.
- Although they didn't appreciate him, the Parliament was willing to put up with him because he was getting old and had no ere. The throne would go to Marry his protestant daughter that was married to Deutsch Prince William of Orange.
- Things went pretty well (tension- wise) between him and Parliament until 1688 as he announced that the queen was pregnant with a boy (!). In James's state of mind, that meant that the new king would be raised a catholic (rumors went around that she wasn't pregnant).
- Was asked to hit the road- Parliament that the situation was unacceptable and that the daughter was to be the queen of England.
-  Raised an army and called William from Holland. Facing two armies, he didn't go through and exiled himself.

Post Revolution
- To make sure a situation like this would never happen again: Act of Supremacy & Bill of Rights. Parliament clearly became a supreme authority over monarchy in the country. It gave itself the power to deny the throne to catholics. Even denied monarchs in the possibility of becoming a catholic king. The goal was to make it impossible for catholics to ever become king or queen in England

*Extra facts
-Mary Stuart was Elizabeth 1st's cousin (!)
- actually James 6th but there had been no other James in England so became James 1st

Any questions? Remarques? Comment!


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